Higher Classification: > Kingdom Animalia > Phylum Cnidaria > Class Hydrozoa > Subclass Hydroidolina > Order Siphonophorae > Suborder Cystonectae > Family Physaliidae > Genus Physalia

Physalia physalis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Rank: Species
Taxon Status: accepted

Relationships towards this taxon

Genus group names

PhysaliaLamarck, 1801accepted genus name

Vernaculars (+) (-)

 Catalan: caravel·la portuguesa; fragata portuguesa
 Dutch: Portugees oorlogsschip sources: Hayward, P.; Nelson-Smith, A.; Shields, C. (1999). Gids van kust en strand: flora en fauna [Coast and beach guide: flora and fauna]. Tirion: Baarn, Netherlands. ISBN 90-5210-327-5. 352, ill. pp.
 English: bluebottle; Portuguese man o’ war; Portuguese man-of-war sources: Cairns, S.D., Calder, D.R., A. Brinckmann-Voss, C.B. Castro, D.G. Fautin, P.R. Pugh, C.E. Mills, W.C. Jaap, M.N. Arai, S.H.D. Haddock & D.M. Opresko, 2002. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Spec. Publ. Am. Fish. Soc. 28 : i-xi, 1-115.;Richmond, M. (Ed.) (1997). A guide to the seashores of Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean islands. Sida/Department for Research Cooperation, SAREC: Stockholm, Sweden. ISBN 91-630-4594-X. 448 pp.
 French: galère portugaise; vessie de mer
 German: Portugiesische Galeere
 Italian: caravella portoghese
 Spanish, Castillian: botella azul; carabela portuguesa


original description

Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp.

additional source

Pugh, P. R. and R. Gasca. 2009. Siphonophorae (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 395–402 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas.

additional source

Linkletter, L.E. 1977. A checklist of marine fauna and flora of the Bay of Fundy. Huntsman Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews, N.B. 68 p.

additional source

Trott, T.J. 2004. Cobscook Bay inventory: a historical checklist of marine invertebrates spanning 162 years. Northeastern Naturalist (Special Issue 2): 261 - 324.

additional source

Richmond, M. (Ed.) (1997). A guide to the seashores of Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean islands. Sida/Department for Research Cooperation, SAREC: Stockholm, Sweden. ISBN 91-630-4594-X. 448 pp.

additional source

Savilov, A.I., 1961. Raspredelenie edologicheskikh form parusnika Velella lata Ch. et Eys. i fizalii Physalia utriculus (La Martinière) Esch. v severno polovine tikhogo okeana. The distribution of different ecological forms of Velella lata Ch. and Eys., and Physalia utriculus (La-Martinière) Esch., in the North Pacific. Trudy Inst. Okeanol. 45 : 223-239.

additional source

Shih, C.T., 1977. A guide to the Jellyfish of Canadian Atlantic waters. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Natural History Series 5 : 1-190.

additional source

Cairns, S.D.; Gershwin, L.; Brook, F.J.; Pugh, P.; Dawson, E.W.; Ocaña O.V.; Vervoort, W.; Williams, G.; Watson, J.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Schuchert, P.; Hine, P.M.; Gordon, D.P.; Campbell, H.J.; Wright, A.J.; Sánchez, J.A.; Fautin, D.G. (2009). Phylum Cnidaria: corals, medusae, hydroids, myxozoans, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 59-101.

additional source

Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.) (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp.

additional source

Mapstone, G. M. 2001. Siphonophora, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 120-122

additional source

Calder, D. 2003 MS. Checklist of Hydroids, hydromedusae and siphonophores reported from the Bay of Fundy.

additional source

Pollock, L.W. (1998). A practical guide to the marine animals of northeastern North America. Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, New Jersey & London. 367 pp.

additional source

Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France. 307 pp.


Kirkpatrick, P.A.; Pugh, P.R. (1984). Siphonophores and velellids: keys and notes for the identification of the species. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 29. E.J. Brill/W. Backhuys: London, UK. ISBN 90-04-07470-8. vi, 154 pp.





External Links

Biodiversity Heritage Library (36 publications)
Barcode of Life (2 barcodes)
USNM Invertebrate Zoology Cnidaria Collection
Marine Life Information Network - UK
GenBank (9 nucleotides; 5 proteins)


Schuchert, P.; Mapstone, G. (2014). Physalia physalis (Linnaeus, 1758). In: Schuchert, P. (2014) World Hydrozoa database. In: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvantidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2014) European Register of Marine Species, accessed through PESI at http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?GUID=urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:135479




 Present  Absent  Doubtful  Native  Introduced  Naturalised  Invasive  Managed  No data


marine, not brackish, not fresh, not terrestrial


no data

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Last modified

2013-12-28 by Peter Schuchert

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