Higher Classification: > Kingdom Animalia > Phylum Cnidaria > Class Anthozoa > Subclass Octocorallia > Order Pennatulacea > Suborder Sessiliflorae > Family Funiculinidae > Genus Funiculina

Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766)

Rank: Species
Taxon Status: accepted

Relationships towards this taxon

Genus group names

FuniculinaLamarck, 1816accepted genus name

Vernaculars (+) (-)

 English: tall sea pen; tall seapen; The tall sepen sources: PESI (A Pan-European Species directories Infrastructure) focal points;BIOTIC
 English-United States: Tall Sea Pen sources: Charles Hussey
 Swedish: större piprensare


basis of record

Williams, G.C.; van der Land, J. (2001). Octocorallia - Pennatulacea, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 105-106

additional source

Williams, G.C. (1992). Biogeography of the octocorallian coelenterate fauna of southern Africa. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 46:351-401.

additional source

Dyntaxa (2013) Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at www.dyntaxa.se [15-01-2013].

additional source

Williams, G.C. Index Pennatulacea : Annotated bibliography and indexes of the sea pens of the world 1469-2002 (Coelenterata: Octocorallia)

additional source

Cairns, S.D., and Bayer, F.M., 2009. Octocorallia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 321–331 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas.

additional source

Cairns, S.D.; Gershwin, L.; Brook, F.J.; Pugh, P.; Dawson, E.W.; Ocaña O.V.; Vervoort, W.; Williams, G.; Watson, J.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Schuchert, P.; Hine, P.M.; Gordon, D.P.; Campbell, H.J.; Wright, A.J.; Sánchez, J.A.; Fautin, D.G. (2009). Phylum Cnidaria: corals, medusae, hydroids, myxozoans, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 59-101.

additional source

Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.) (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp.





External Links

Biodiversity Heritage Library (83 publications)
USNM Invertebrate Zoology Cnidaria Collection
Marine Life Information Network - UK
GenBank (5 nucleotides; 5 proteins)


Williams, G. (2014). Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766). In: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvantidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2014) European Register of Marine Species, accessed through PESI at http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?GUID=urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:128506




 Present  Absent  Doubtful  Native  Introduced  Naturalised  Invasive  Managed  No data




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Last modified

2005-07-27 by Gary Williams

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