Higher Classification: > Kingdom Chromista > Subkingdom Harosa > Infrakingdom Alveolata > Phylum Myzozoa > Subphylum Dinozoa > Infraphylum Dinoflagellata > Class Dinophyceae > Order Gymnodiniales > Family Gymnodiniaceae > Genus Gymnodinium

Gymnodinium catenatum H.W.Graham, 1943

Rank: Species
Taxon Status: accepted

Relationships towards this taxon

Genus group names

GymnodiniumStein, 1878accepted genus name


original description

Graham H.1943. Gymnodinium catenatum, a new dinoflagellate from the Gulf of California. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 62: 259-261.

basis of record

Gómez, F., 2005. A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64 (1), 129-212.

additional source

Streftaris, N.; Zenetos, A.; Papathanassiou, E. (2005). Globalisation in marine ecosystems: the story of non-indigenous marine species across European seas. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 43: 419-453

additional source


additional source

Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53

additional source

Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae.

additional source

Dyntaxa (2013) Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at www.dyntaxa.se [15-01-2013].

additional source

Chang, F.H.; Charleston, W.A.G.; McKenna, P.B.; Clowes, C.D.; Wilson, G.J.; Broady, P.A. (2012). Phylum Myzozoa: dinoflagellates, perkinsids, ellobiopsids, sporozoans, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2012). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 3. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. pp. 175-216.

additional source

Tomas, C.R. (Ed.) (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp.

additional source

Mee L.D., Espinosa M. & Diaz G. 1986. Paralytic shellfish poisoning with a Gymnodinium catenatum red tide on the Pacific Coast of México. Mar. Env. Res. 19: 77-92.

toxicology source

Anderson D.M., Sullivan J.J. & Reguera B. 1989. Paralytic shellfish poisoning in northwest Spain: the toxicity of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. Toxicon 27: 665-674.

toxicology source

Oshima Y., Hasegawa M., Yasumoto T., Hallegraeff G. & Blackburn S. 1987. Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum as the source of paralytic shellfish toxins in Tasmanian shellfish. Toxicon 25: 1105-1111.




Published in AlgaeBase

External Links

Biodiversity Heritage Library (7 publications)
Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE)
Barcode of Life (7 barcodes)
GenBank (127 nucleotides; 7 proteins)


Guiry, Michael D. (2014). Gymnodinium catenatum H.W.Graham, 1943. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2014). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). In: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvantidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2014) European Register of Marine Species, accessed through PESI at http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?GUID=urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:109784




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Last modified

2010-12-13 by Michael D. Guiry

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