Higher Classification: > Kingdom Chromista > Subkingdom Harosa > Infrakingdom Alveolata > Phylum Myzozoa > Subphylum Dinozoa > Infraphylum Dinoflagellata > Class Dinophyceae > Order Gymnodiniales > Family Kareniaceae > Genus Karenia

Karenia mikimotoi (Miyake & Kominami ex Oda) G.Hansen & Ø.Moestrup, 2000

Rank: Species
Taxon Status: accepted

Relationships towards this taxon

Genus group names

KareniaG.Hansen & Moestrup, 2000accepted genus name

Species group names

Gymnodinium mikimotoi Miyake & Kominami ex Oda, 1935 synonym


original description

Oda M. 1935. The red tide of Gymnodinium mikimotoi n.sp. (MS.) and the effect of altering copper sulphate to prevent the growth of it. Dobutsugaku Zasshi, Zoological Society of Japan 47 (555): 35-48.

additional source

Tangen K. 1977. Blooms of Gyrodinium aureolum (Dinophyceae) in North European waters, accompanied by mortality in marine organisms. Sarsia 63: 123-133.

additional source


additional source

Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae.

additional source

Dyntaxa (2013) Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at www.dyntaxa.se [15-01-2013].

additional source

Chang, F.H.; Charleston, W.A.G.; McKenna, P.B.; Clowes, C.D.; Wilson, G.J.; Broady, P.A. (2012). Phylum Myzozoa: dinoflagellates, perkinsids, ellobiopsids, sporozoans, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2012). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 3. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. pp. 175-216.

additional source

Steidinger, K. A., M. A. Faust, and D. U. Hernández-Becerril. 2009. Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 131–154 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College

source of synonymy

Takayama H. & Adachi R. 1984. Gymnodinium nagasakiense sp. nov., a red-tide forming dinophyte in the adjacent waters of Japan. Bull. Plankton Soc. Jap. 31: 7-14.

new combination reference

Daugbjerg N., Hansen G., Larsen J. & Moestrup Ø. 2000. Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia 39: 302-317.

toxicology source

Gentien P. & Arzul G. 1990. Exotoxin production by Gyrodinium cf. aureolum (Dinophyceae). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 70: 571-581.

toxicology source

Satake, M., Shoji, M., Oshima, Y., Naoki, H., Fujita, T. & Yasumoto, T. 2002. Gymnocin-A, a cytotoxic polyether from the noxious red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium mikimotoi. Tetrahedr. Lett. 43: 5829-5832

taxonomy source

Hansen, G., Daugbjerg, N. & Henriksen, P. (2000). Comparative study of Gymnodinium mikimotoi and Gymnodinium aureolum, comb. nov. (=Gyrodinium aureolum) based on morphology, pigment composition, and molecular data. J. of Phycol. 36: 394-410.




Published in AlgaeBase

External Links

GenBank (161 nucleotides; 92 proteins)
Barcode of Life (2 barcodes)
Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE)


WoRMS (2014). Karenia mikimotoi (Miyake & Kominami ex Oda) G.Hansen & Ø.Moestrup, 2000. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2014). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). In: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvantidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2014) European Register of Marine Species, accessed through PESI at http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?GUID=urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:233024




 Present  Absent  Doubtful  Native  Introduced  Naturalised  Invasive  Managed  No data




no data

Provided by

logo erms



Last modified

2010-10-13 by Gert Hansen

Your feedback

click here

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 License

Your e-mail address:

Your message: