Higher Classification: > Kingdom Chromista > Subkingdom Harosa > Infrakingdom Alveolata > Phylum Myzozoa > Subphylum Dinozoa > Infraphylum Dinoflagellata > Class Dinophyceae > Order Gonyaulacales > Family Gonyaulacaceae > Genus Alexandrium

Alexandrium monilatum (J.F.Howell) Balech, 1995

Rank: Species
Taxon Status: accepted

Relationships towards this taxon

Genus group names

AlexandriumHalim, 1960accepted genus name
Gessnerium Halim ex Halim, 1967 synonym


original description

Howell J.F. 1953. Gonyaulax monilata, sp. nov., the causative dinoflagellate of a red tide on the east coast of Florida in August-September, 1951. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 72: 153-156.

basis of record

Gómez, F., 2005. A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64 (1), 129-212.

additional source

Gómez, F., 2005. A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64 (1), 129-212.

additional source

Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae.

additional source

Tomas, C.R. (Ed.) (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp.

additional source


additional source

Steidinger, K. A., M. A. Faust, and D. U. Hernández-Becerril. 2009. Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 131–154 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College

new combination reference

Balech E. 1985. The genus Alexandrium or Gonyaulax of the tamarensis group. In: Toxic Dinoflagellates (Ed. by D.M. Anderson, A.W. White & D.G. Baden), pp. 33-38. Elsevier, New York.

toxicology source

Bass E.J., Pinion J.P. & Sharif M.E. 1983. Characterization of a hemolysin from Gonyaulax monilata Howell. Aquat. Toxicol. 3: 15-22.

toxicology source

Clemons G.P., Pinion J.P., Bass E., Pham D.V., Sharif M. & Wutoh J.G. 1980. A hemolytic principle associated with the red-tide dinoflagellate Gonyaulax monilata. Toxicon 18: 323-326.




Published in AlgaeBase

External Links

Biodiversity Heritage Library (2 publications)
GenBank (6 nucleotides; 3 proteins)


WoRMS (2014). Alexandrium monilatum (J.F.Howell) Balech, 1995. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2014). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). In: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvantidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2014) European Register of Marine Species, accessed through PESI at http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?GUID=urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:231875




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Last modified

2010-10-27 by Santiago Fraga

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