Higher Classification: > Kingdom Chromista > Subkingdom Harosa > Infrakingdom Heterokonta > Phylum Ochrophyta > Subphylum Phaeista > Infraphylum Monista > Superclass Raphidoistia > Class Raphidophyceae > Order Chattonellales > Family Chattonellaceae > Genus Heterosigma

Heterosigma akashiwo (Y.Hada) Y.Hada ex Y.Hara & M.Chihara, 1987

Rank: Species
Taxon Status: accepted

Relationships towards this taxon

Genus group names

HeterosigmaY.Hada ex Y.Hara & M.Chihara, 1987accepted genus name


original description

Hada Y. 1967. Protozoan plankton of the Inland Sea, Setonaikai I. The Mastigophora. Bull. Suzugamine Women’s Coll., Nat. Sci. 14: 1-26.

basis of record

TMAP - Trilateral Monitoring and Assessment Program database

additional source

Streftaris, N.; Zenetos, A.; Papathanassiou, E. (2005). Globalisation in marine ecosystems: the story of non-indigenous marine species across European seas. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 43: 419-453

additional source

Smayda T.J. 1998. Ecophysiology and bloom dynamics of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae). In: Physiological Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms (Ed. by D.M. Anderson, A.D. Cembella & G.M. Hallegraeff), pp. 113-131. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.

additional source

Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae.

additional source

Dyntaxa (2013) Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at www.dyntaxa.se [15-01-2013].

additional source

Tomas, C.R. (Ed.) (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp.

additional source

Chang F. H., Anderson C. & Boustead N. C. 1990. First record of a Heterosigma (Raphidophyceae) bloom with associated mortality of cage-reared salmon in Big Glory Bay, New Zealand. New Zealand. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 24: 461-469.

additional source

Honjo T. 1993. Overview on bloom dynamics and physiological ecology of Heterosigma akashiwo. In: Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea (Ed. by T.J. Smayda & Y. Shimizu), pp. 33-41. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

additional source

Harper, M.A.; Cassie Cooper, V.; Chang, F.H.; Nelson, W.A.; Broady, P.A. (2012). Phylum Ochrophyta: brown and golden-brown algae, diatoms, silicoflagellates, and kin, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2012). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 3. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. pp. 114-163.

additional source


new combination reference

Hara, Y. & Chihara, C. 1987. Morphology, ultrastructure and taxonomy of the raphidophycean alga Heterosigma akashiwo. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 100: 151-163.




Published in AlgaeBase

External Links

GenBank (236 nucleotides; 724 proteins)
Biodiversity Heritage Library (6 publications)
Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE)


Guiry, Michael D. (2014). Heterosigma akashiwo (Y.Hada) Y.Hada ex Y.Hara & M.Chihara, 1987. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2014). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). In: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvantidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2014) European Register of Marine Species, accessed through PESI at http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?GUID=urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:160585




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Last modified

2010-12-13 by Michael D. Guiry

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