Higher Classification: > Kingdom Chromista > Subkingdom Harosa > Infrakingdom Alveolata > Phylum Myzozoa > Subphylum Dinozoa > Infraphylum Dinoflagellata > Class Dinophyceae > Order Gonyaulacales > Family Gonyaulacaceae > Genus Alexandrium

Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Balech & Tangen, 1985

Rank: Species
Taxon Status: accepted

Relationships towards this taxon

Genus group names

AlexandriumHalim, 1960accepted genus name
Gessnerium Halim ex Halim, 1967 synonym

Species group names

Goniodoma ostenfeldii Paulsen, 1904 basionym
Gessnerium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) L.Loeblich & Loeblich III, 1979 synonym
Goniodoma ostenfeldii Paulsen, 1904 synonym
Gonyaulax globosa (Braarud) Balech, 1971 synonym
Gonyaulax tamarensis var. globosa Braarud, 1945 synonym
Heteraulacus ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Loeblich III, 1970 synonym
Pyrodinium phoneus Woloszynskia & Conrad, 1939 synonym
Triadinium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Dodge, 1981 synonym


original description

Paulsen O. 1904. Plankton investigations in the waters round Iceland in 1903. Medd. Komm. Havunders. København, Ser. Plankton 1: 1-40.

basis of record

Gómez, F., 2005. A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64 (1), 129-212.

additional source


additional source

ITIS database

additional source

Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53

additional source

MacKenzie L., White D., Oshima Y. & Kapa J. 1996. The resting cyst and toxicity of Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) in New Zealand. Phycologia 35: 148-155.

additional source

Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae.

additional source

Dyntaxa (2013) Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at www.dyntaxa.se [15-01-2013].

additional source

Chang, F.H.; Charleston, W.A.G.; McKenna, P.B.; Clowes, C.D.; Wilson, G.J.; Broady, P.A. (2012). Phylum Myzozoa: dinoflagellates, perkinsids, ellobiopsids, sporozoans, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2012). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 3. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. pp. 175-216.

additional source

Tomas, C.R. (Ed.) (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp.

additional source

Horner, R.A. 2002. A taxonomic guide to some common marine phytoplankton. Biopress Ltd. Bristol. 195 p.

additional source

Martin, J.L., M.M. LeGresley and P.M. Strain. 2001. Phytoplankton monitoring in the Western Isles region of the Bay of Fundy during 1997-98. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2349. iv + 85 p.

additional source

Steidinger, K.A. and K. Tangen. 1977. Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press. San Diego. p. 387-584.

source of synonymy

Kremp, A., Tahvanainen, P., Litaker, W., Krock, B., Suikkanen, S., Leaw, C. P. & Tomas, C. (2013). Phylogenetic relationships, morphological variation, and toxin patterns in the Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) complex: implications for species boundaries and identities. J Phycol 50:81-100.

source of synonymy

Gómez, F., 2005. A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64 (1), 129-212.

new combination reference

Balech E.& Tangen K. 1985. Morphology and taxonomy of toxic species in the tamarensis group (Dinophyceae) Alexandrium excavatum (Braarud) comb. nov. and Alexandrium ostenfeldii(Paulsen) comb. nov. Sarsia 70: 333-343.

toxicology source

Hansen P.J., Cembella A.D. & Moestrup Ø. 1992. The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii: paralytic shellfish toxin concentration, composition, and toxicity to a tintinnid ciliate. J. Phycol. 28: 597-603.

toxicology source

Cembella A.D., Lewis N.I. & Quilliam M.A. 2000. The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) as the causative organism of spirolide shellfish toxins. Phycologia 39: 67-74.




Published in AlgaeBase

External Links

GenBank (14502 nucleotides; 3 proteins)
Barcode of Life
Biodiversity Heritage Library (2 publications)


Guiry, Michael D. (2014). Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Balech & Tangen, 1985. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2014). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). In: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvantidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2014) European Register of Marine Species, accessed through PESI at http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?GUID=urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:109712




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Last modified

2010-10-27 by Santiago Fraga

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