Higher Classification: > Kingdom Chromista > Subkingdom Harosa > Infrakingdom Alveolata > Phylum Myzozoa > Subphylum Dinozoa > Infraphylum Dinoflagellata > Class Dinophyceae > Order Gymnodiniales > Family Kareniaceae > Genus Karlodinium

Karlodinium veneficum (D.Ballantine) J.Larsen, 2000

Rank: Species
Taxon Status: accepted

Relationships towards this taxon

Genus group names

KarlodiniumJ.Larsen, 2000accepted genus name

Species group names

Gymnodinium galatheanum Braarud, 1957 synonym
Gymnodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) Loeblich III, 1970 synonym
Gymnodinium veneficum D.Ballantine, 1956 synonym
Karlodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) J.Larsen, 2000 synonym


original description

Ballantine D. 1956. Two new marine species of Gymnodinium isolated from the Plymouth area. J. mar.biol. Ass. U.K. 35: 467-474.

basis of record

Gómez, F., 2005. A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64 (1), 129-212.

additional source


additional source

Abbott B.C. & Ballantine D. 1957. The toxin from Gymnodinium veneficum Ballantine. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 36: 169-189.

additional source

Deeds J.R., Terlizzi D.E., Adolf J.E., Stoecker D.K. & Place A.R. 2002. Toxic activity from cultures of Karlodinium micrum (=Gyrodinium galatheanum) (Dinophyceae) - a dinoflagellate associated with fish mortalities in an estuarine aquaculture facility. Harmful Algae 1: 169-189.

additional source

Adolf J.E., Bachvaroff T.R., Krupatkina D.N., Nonogaki H., Brown P.J.P., Lewitus A.J., Harvey H.R. & Place A.R. 2006. Species specificity and potential roles of Karlodinium micrum toxin. African Journal of Marine Science 28: 415-419.

additional source

Steidinger, K. A., M. A. Faust, and D. U. Hernández-Becerril. 2009. Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 131–154 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College

additional source

Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae.

additional source

Chang, F.H.; Charleston, W.A.G.; McKenna, P.B.; Clowes, C.D.; Wilson, G.J.; Broady, P.A. (2012). Phylum Myzozoa: dinoflagellates, perkinsids, ellobiopsids, sporozoans, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2012). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 3. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. pp. 175-216.


Bergholtz T., Daugbjerg N., Moestrup Ø. & Fernández-Tejedor M. 2005. On the identity of Karlodinium veneficum and the description of Karlodinium armiger sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), based on light and electron microscopy, nuclear-encoded LSU rDNA, and pigment composition. J. Phycol. 42: 170-193.

new combination reference

Daugbjerg N., Hansen G., Larsen J. & Moestrup Ø. 2000. Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia 39: 302-317.




Published in AlgaeBase

External Links

Barcode of Life (4 barcodes)
GenBank (1521 nucleotides; 561 proteins)


WoRMS (2014). Karlodinium veneficum (D.Ballantine) J.Larsen, 2000. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2014). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). In: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvantidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2014) European Register of Marine Species, accessed through PESI at http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?GUID=urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:233037




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Last modified

2008-11-21 by Øjvind Moestrup

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