Higher Classification: > Kingdom Animalia > Phylum Mollusca > Class Gastropoda > Subclass Heterobranchia > Infraclass Opisthobranchia > Order Thecosomata > Suborder Euthecosomata > Superfamily Limacinoidea > Family Limacinidae > Genus Limacina

Limacina helicina (Phipps, 1774)

Rank: Species
Taxon Status: accepted

Relationships towards this taxon

Genus group names

LimacinaBosc, 1817accepted genus name
Heterofusus Fleming, 1823 synonym
Scaea Philippi, 1844 synonym
Spiratella Blainville, 1817 synonym
Spirialis Eydoux & Souleyet, 1840 synonym

Species group names

Clio helicina Phipps, 1774 basionym
Argonauta arctica Fabricius O., 1780 synonym
Clio helicina Phipps, 1774 synonym
Limacina helicialis Lamarck, 1819 synonym
Spiratella limacina de Blainville, 1824 synonym


basis of record

Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. (2001). Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 180-213

additional source

Rosenberg, G. 2004. Malacolog Version 3.3.2: Western Atlantic gastropod database. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.

additional source

Spencer, H.G.; Marshall, B.A.; Maxwell, P.A.; Grant-Mackie, J.A.; Stilwell, J.D.; Willan, R.C.; Campbell, H.J.; Crampton, J.S.; Henderson, R.A.; Bradshaw, M.A.; Waterhouse, J.B.; Pojeta, J. Jr (2009). Phylum Mollusca: chitons, clams, tusk shells, snails, squids, and kin, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 161-254.

additional source

ITIS database

status source

Hunt B., Strugnell J., Bednarsek N., Linse K., Nelson R.J., Pakhomov E., Seibel B., Steinke D. & W├╝rzberg L. (2010). Poles apart: The "bipolar" pteropod species Limacina helicina is genetically distinct between the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans. PLoS One 5(3):e9835.





External Links

GenBank (11 nucleotides; 10 proteins)
USNM Invertebrate Zoology Mollusca Collection
Biodiversity Heritage Library (171 publications)
Barcode of Life (22 barcodes)


Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2014). Limacina helicina (Phipps, 1774). In: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvantidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2014) European Register of Marine Species, accessed through PESI at http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?GUID=urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:140223




 Present  Absent  Doubtful  Native  Introduced  Naturalised  Invasive  Managed  No data




no data

Provided by

logo erms



Last modified

2010-10-12 by Philippe Bouchet

Your feedback

click here

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 License

Your e-mail address:

Your message: