Higher Classification: > Kingdom Chromista > Subkingdom Harosa > Infrakingdom Alveolata > Phylum Myzozoa > Subphylum Dinozoa > Infraphylum Dinoflagellata > Class Dinophyceae > Order Gonyaulacales > Family Gonyaulacaceae > Genus Protoceratium

Protoceratium reticulatum (Claparède & Lachmann) Butschli, 1885

Rank: Species
Taxon Status: accepted

Relationships towards this taxon

Genus group names

ProtoceratiumBergh, 1881accepted genus name

Species group names

Gonyaulax grindleyi Reinecke, 1967 synonym
Peridinium reticulatum Claparède & Lachmann, 1859 synonym
Protoceratium aceros Bergh, 1882 synonym


original description

Claparède E. & Lachmann J. 1859. Etudes sur les Infusoires et les Rhizopodes. Mém. Inst. Genev. 5, 6: 489 pp.

basis of record

Gómez, F., 2005. A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64 (1), 129-212.

additional source


additional source

Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53

additional source

Steidinger, K. A., M. A. Faust, and D. U. Hernández-Becerril. 2009. Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 131–154 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College

additional source

Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae.

additional source

Dyntaxa (2013) Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at www.dyntaxa.se [15-01-2013].

additional source

Chang, F.H.; Charleston, W.A.G.; McKenna, P.B.; Clowes, C.D.; Wilson, G.J.; Broady, P.A. (2012). Phylum Myzozoa: dinoflagellates, perkinsids, ellobiopsids, sporozoans, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2012). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 3. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. pp. 175-216.

additional source

Tomas, C.R. (Ed.) (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp.

new combination reference

Bütschli O. 1885. Dinoflagellata. In Protozoa (1880-1889), in Bronn‘s Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs 1: 906-1029.

toxicology source

Satake M., MacKenzie L. & Yasumoto T. 1997. Identification of Protoceratium reticulatum as the biogenetic origin of yessotoxin. Nat. Toxins 5: 164-167.

toxicology source

Satake M., Ichimura T., Sekiguchi K., Yoshimatsu S. & Oshima Y. 1999. Confirmation of yessotoxin and 45, 46, 47-trinoryessotoxin production by Protoceratium reticulatum collected in Japan. Nat. Toxins 7: 147-150.

toxicology source

Paz, B., Riobó, P., Fernández, M. L., Fraga, S. & Franco, J. M. 2004. Production and release of yessotoxins by the dinoflagellates Protoceratium reticulatum and Lingulodinium polyedrum in culture. Toxicon 44:251-58.




Published in AlgaeBase

External Links

Biodiversity Heritage Library (34 publications)
Barcode of Life (4 barcodes)
GenBank (82 nucleotides; 20 proteins)


Guiry, Michael D. (2014). Protoceratium reticulatum (Claparède & Lachmann) Butschli, 1885. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2014). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). In: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvantidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2014) European Register of Marine Species, accessed through PESI at http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?GUID=urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:110321




 Present  Absent  Doubtful  Native  Introduced  Naturalised  Invasive  Managed  No data




no data

Provided by

logo erms



Last modified

2014-02-14 by Michael D. Guiry

Your feedback

click here

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 License

Your e-mail address:

Your message: