Higher Classification: > Kingdom Chromista > Subkingdom Harosa > Infrakingdom Alveolata > Phylum Myzozoa > Subphylum Dinozoa > Infraphylum Dinoflagellata > Class Dinophyceae > Order Prorocentrales > Family Prorocentraceae > Genus Prorocentrum

Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) F.Stein, 1878

Rank: Species
Taxon Status: accepted

Relationships towards this taxon

Genus group names

ProrocentrumEhrenberg, 1834accepted genus name

Species group names

Prorocentrum marinum Dodge & Bibby, 1973 synonym


original description

Ehrenberg C.G. 1860. Verzeichnis der Leuchtthierchen. Verhandl. Königl. Preuss. Akad. Wissensch. Berlin, Monatsberichte 1859: 791-793; First figure (Fig. 2) given in Ehrenberg C.G. 1873. Die das Funkeln und Aufblitzen des Mittelmeeres bewirkenden kleinen Lebensformen. Gesellsch. Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, Festschrift zur Feier des hundertjährigen Bestehens, 1-4.

basis of record

Gómez, F., 2005. A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64 (1), 129-212.

additional source

Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae.

additional source

Dyntaxa (2013) Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at www.dyntaxa.se [15-01-2013].

additional source

Chang, F.H.; Charleston, W.A.G.; McKenna, P.B.; Clowes, C.D.; Wilson, G.J.; Broady, P.A. (2012). Phylum Myzozoa: dinoflagellates, perkinsids, ellobiopsids, sporozoans, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2012). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 3. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. pp. 175-216.

additional source

Tomas, C.R. (Ed.) (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp.

additional source


additional source

Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53

additional source

Steidinger, K. A., M. A. Faust, and D. U. Hernández-Becerril. 2009. Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 131–154 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College

additional source

Lakkis, S. (2011). Le phytoplancton marin du Liban (Méditerranée orientale): biologie, biodiversité, biogéographie. Aracne: Roma. ISBN 978-88-548-4243-4. 293 pp.


Nagahama, Y. & Fukuyo, Y. 2005. Redescription of Cryptomonas lima, collected from Sorrento, Italy, the basionym of Prorocentrum lima. Plankton Biol. Ecol. 52: 107-109.

new combination reference

Stein F.R. von 1878. Der Organismus der Infusionsthiere nach eigenen Forschungen in systematischer Reihenfolge bearbeitet. III. Abteilung 1. Hälfte Engelmann, Leipzig, 154 pp.

toxicology source

Murakami Y., Oshima Y. & Yasumoto T. 1982. Identification of okadaic acid as a toxic component of a marine dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 48: 69-72.

toxicology source

Tindall D.R., Dickey R.D., Carlson R.D. & Morey-Gaines G. 1984. Ciguatoxigenic dinoflagellates from the Caribbean Sea. In: Seafood Toxins (Ed. by E.P. Ragelis), pp. 225-240. Am. Chem. Soc., Washington.

toxicology source

Torigoe K., Murata M. & Yasumoto T. 1988. Prorocentrolide, a toxic nitrogenous macrocycle from a marine dinoflagellate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110 : 7876-7877.




Published in AlgaeBase

External Links

Biodiversity Heritage Library (7 publications)
Barcode of Life (32 barcodes)
GenBank (162 nucleotides; 39 proteins)


WoRMS (2014). Prorocentrum lima. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2014). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). In: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvantidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2014) European Register of Marine Species, accessed through PESI at http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?GUID=urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:110301




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Last modified

2010-10-12 by Mona Hoppenrath

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