Higher Classification: > Kingdom Chromista > Subkingdom Harosa > Infrakingdom Alveolata > Phylum Myzozoa > Subphylum Dinozoa > Infraphylum Dinoflagellata > Class Dinophyceae > Order Gonyaulacales > Family Gonyaulacaceae > Genus Alexandrium

Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech, 1995

Rank: Species
Taxon Status: accepted

Relationships towards this taxon

Genus group names

AlexandriumHalim, 1960accepted genus name
Gessnerium Halim ex Halim, 1967 synonym

Species group names

Gonyaulax tamarensis Lebour, 1925 basionym
Gonyaulax excavata (Braarud) Balech, 1971 synonym
Gonyaulax tamarensis Lebour, 1925 synonym
Gonyaulax tamarensis var. excavata T.Braarud, 1945 synonym


original description

Lebour, M.V. 1992. The Dinoflagellates of Northern Seas. Mar. Biol. Ass., Plymouth. 250 pp.

basis of record

Gómez, F., 2005. A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans. Acta Bot. Croat. 64 (1), 129-212.

additional source


additional source

Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 47-53

additional source

Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae.

additional source

Dyntaxa (2013) Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at www.dyntaxa.se [15-01-2013].

additional source

Chang, F.H.; Charleston, W.A.G.; McKenna, P.B.; Clowes, C.D.; Wilson, G.J.; Broady, P.A. (2012). Phylum Myzozoa: dinoflagellates, perkinsids, ellobiopsids, sporozoans, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2012). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 3. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. pp. 175-216.

additional source

Tomas, C.R. (Ed.) (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp.

additional source

Scott, F.J.; Marchant, H.J. (Ed.) (2005). Antarctic marine protists Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra. ISBN 0-642-56835-9. 563 pp.

additional source

Balech, E. 1995. The Genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata). Sherkin Island Marine Station, Sherkin Island, Co. Cork, Ireland, 151.

new combination reference

Balech E. 1985. The genus Alexandrium or Gonyaulax of the tamarensis group. In: Toxic Dinoflagellates (Ed. by D.M. Anderson, A.W. White & D.G. Baden), pp. 33-38. Elsevier, New York.

toxicology source

Ogata T., Ishimaru T. & Kodama M. 1987. Effect of water temperature and light intensity on growth rate and toxicity change in Protogonyaulax tamarensis. Mar. Biol. 95: 217-220.

toxicology source

Shimizu Y., Alam M., Oshima Y. & Fallon W.E. 1975. Presence of four toxins in red tide infested clams and cultured Gonyaulax tamarensis cells. Biochem. biophys. Res. Commun. 66: 731-737.

toxicology source

Oshima Y., Hayakawa T., Hashimoto M., Kotaki Y. & Yasumoto T. 1982. Classification of Protogonyaulax tamarensis from northern Japan into three strains by toxic composition. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 48: 851-854.




Published in AlgaeBase

External Links

Biodiversity Heritage Library (8 publications)
Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE)
Barcode of Life (5 barcodes)
GenBank (11801 nucleotides; 66 proteins)


WoRMS (2014). Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech, 1995. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2014). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). In: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvantidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2014) European Register of Marine Species, accessed through PESI at http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?GUID=urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:109714




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Last modified

2010-10-27 by Santiago Fraga

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